Since 2001 much of the Government's expenditure related to areas highlighted in the question has been managed through the joint DFID, FCO and MOD conflict prevention pools; the Africa Conflict Prevention Pool (ACPP) and the Global Conflict Prevention Pool (GCPP). Both pools receive technical support from the Post Conflict Reconstruction Unit (PCRU). The PCRU is also a tri-departmental unit involving DFID, the FCO and MOD. The PCRU enables UK Government Departments and the military to work together to support countries emerging from conflict. It provides skilled civilian staff to help kick-start post-conflict recovery. It does not provide funds.
The pools support projects to improve the effectiveness of UK and international support for conflict prevention, through addressing long-term structural causes of conflict, managing regional and national tension and violence, and supporting post-conflict reconstruction where the UK can make a significant contribution, in particular Africa, Asia, the Balkans and the middle east.
Given these arrangements, providing a detailed break down of DFID contributions in the areas (a) to (e) would be difficult and would incur disproportionate costs. Further, they would effectively be limited to administrative costs incurred by DFID in fulfilling its management and oversight obligations. The overall pools budgets for the financial year 2006-07 are provided as follows for information.
Pool Overall pools budgets (£ million) The Global Conflict Prevention Pool 74 Africa Conflict Prevention Pool 63.5
Overall pools budgets (£ million)
The Global Conflict Prevention Pool
Africa Conflict Prevention Pool
Allocations for 2007-08 for both the GCPP and the ACPP have yet to be agreed and as both are currently being assessed as part of the Comprehensive Spending Review it is difficult to provide forward figures for the financial years 2007-08 and 2008-09.
The Conflict Prevention Pools also fund the UK's contributions to the cost of international peacekeeping (d). In financial year 2006-07 up to £373.3 million has been made available to cover such costs. Due to the unpredictable nature of conflict and post-conflict situations, the funding for peacekeeping missions is determined on an annual basis and as such it is not possible to provide forward estimates for the financial years 2007-08 and 2008-09.
In some cases DFID provides earmarked funds to the areas in question directly through our country programmes. Where this is the case, and where it is possible to break the expenditure down according to categories (a) to (e) in the question, such expenditure is reported as follows by country. In some cases it is difficult to disaggregate funds in the manner requested. Where this is the case an overall expenditure figure is provided.
DFID will disburse approximately £102 million in bilateral assistance to Afghanistan in 2006-07. The forecast expenditure for 2007-08 is £113 million. There are not yet forecast figures for 2008-09.
The focus of this aid is on three areas: (i) livelihoods, (ii) rural assistance and (iii) state-building; the latter comprising roughly 10 per cent. of annual expenditure. State-building expenditure supports efforts to increase Government capacity in order for the Afghan Government to meet its commitments outlined in the Interim Afghan National Development Strategy and Afghan Compact, both of which were signed at the London Conference in January 2006. DFID Afghanistan does not fund directly areas (b), (c), (d) or (e) outlined in the question. However through DFID's partnership arrangements with UN agencies, international financing institutions and civil society organisation funding does indirectly address areas (b), (d) and (e). Disaggregated figures are not readily available.
Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)
DFID has supported a number of initiatives in the DRC aimed at building the capacity of the transition Government in support of the reforms outlined in the peace agreement. This has been achieved by building capacity in the ministries and transition institutions to bring about the first democratic election in DRC which was the centre piece of the global and inclusive accords. Support has totalled some £4.5 million. This includes:
Amount of support (£) Support to the elections trust fund 2 million. Support to the Electoral Institute of Southern Africa for capacity building, including support to the Independent Electoral Commission 1,322,672. Support to the Elections Disputes Project 400,000. Support to Transitions Institutions 500,000. Technical assistance for elections security 226,029.
Amount of support (£)
Support to the elections trust fund
Support to the Electoral Institute of Southern Africa for capacity building, including support to the Independent Electoral Commission
Support to the Elections Disputes Project
Support to Transitions Institutions
Technical assistance for elections security
The vast majority of DFID DRC's contributions to humanitarian assistance are channelled through the DRC Humanitarian Pooled Fund. The DFID contribution to this fund for this financial year (2006-07) is £1.8 million. The proposed contribution for the next financial year (2007-08) is £0.9 million. Beyond this it is difficult to provide figures, though we are likely to continue to support the fund. Based on disbursements to date, approximately 6 per cent. of the funds have been allocated to the return and reintegration of refugees.
DFID's £45 million Iraq programme for 2006-07 focuses on economic reform; infrastructure; improving power and water services in the south; governance and institution building in Baghdad and the south; and support for civil society and political participation. Projects relevant to the question include the Governorate Capacity Building Project (£20.5 million over three years), support to the centre of Government Programme (£13.25 million over two years) and support to the Political Participation Fund (£5 million over two years).
DFID also continues to work through the international system, as a member of the donor core group, and as a major contributor to the UN and World Bank Trust Funds for Iraq. DFID is working with the Iraqi Government, the UN, the World Bank, the US and other donors to achieve a more coordinated and Iraqi-led reconstruction and development effort.
On (a), DFID's current efforts are focused on supporting the re-establishment of law and order institutions in Somalia. We plan to commit £620,000 to the UNDP Rule of Law and Security programme in 2006-07. Much of this programme is focused on Somaliland and Puntland, as both are more stable regions with relatively better established institutions. Within the framework of the transitional federal charter for Somalia, DFID is directing its efforts at the establishment of inclusive safety, security and access to justice institutions.
On (b), DFID has committed £800,000 to UNHCR to support the integration and settlement of internally displaced people (IDPs) and refugees. However in the long term, safe return on a larger scale depends on satisfactory resolution of the circumstances that have driven people from their homes in the first place. Our efforts in the meantime are directed to helping to achieve these conditions, for example by providing support to the Transitional Federal Government in Somalia.
Sudan's framework for this financial year and next is £109.8 million. A substantial element of these funds will be used to support most of the activities listed in the question over the next three years, but given the need for rapid and flexible response in post-conflict countries, it is not possible to state with any certainty how much will be allocated to each sector. However, no DFID funding is used for (e).
Central funding to specialised UN Agencies
DFID has so far contributed an estimated £26 million to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) this financial year (2006-07). Within this total, DFID contributed £875,000 to support the successful return of 370,000 Liberian IDPs and £1 million in DRC to support their work with IDP returns in that country.
A large amount of the funding to UNHCR is un-earmarked (£17 million) to allow UNHCR flexibility over use of funds according to the greatest need among their programmes. We are therefore unable to specify with certainty what DFID funds have been used for returns programmes. It is difficult to predict how much funding will be needed in the international community for the safe return of internally displaced persons (IDPs) and refugees in future years as it is difficult to predict the resolution of crises that have forced people to flee their homes in the first place.