The most recent re-offending information on times to re-offending was published in November as “Re-offending of Adults: results from the 2003 cohort. Home Office Statistical Bulletin 20/06”. The report is available on line at http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs06/hosb2006.pdf and covers offenders starting community sentences or being discharged from prison in England and Wales in the first quarter of 2003.
Time to re-offending for offenders released from custody only, and information on re-offending within 24 hours, 48 hours, and one week, are not routinely calculated.
However information on time to re-offending on a monthly basis for offenders released from custody or starting a community sentence in the first quarter of 2003 is illustrated in figure 3, page 5. Figure 4 on page 5 shows the average number of days to re-offending by offence group.
Information on the numbers of prisoners serving sentences of less than six months can be found in the following table which is taken from webtable 8.19 to be published shortly in conjunction with the Offender Management Caseload Statistics 2005, a copy of which can be found in the House of Commons Library.
These figures have been drawn from administrative IT systems. Although care is taken when processing and analysing the returns, the detail collected is subject to the inaccuracies inherent in any large-scale recording system, and although shown to the last individual the figures may not be accurate to that level.
Number Up to and including three months 1,882 Over three months and including six months 4,127
Up to and including three months
Over three months and including six months
Data for the resettlement key performance indicator show that, in 2005-06, 76,774 prisoners reported that they had accommodation arranged on release. This represents 90.1 per cent. of the total released in the year ending March 2006, the latest period for which figures are available.
Jobcentre Plus advisers work in most prisons, and offer advice and assistance on potential employment opportunities, closing down benefit claims and the completion of forms, including for community care grants or crisis loans, prior to discharge.
Prisoners who do not have a job or training place to go to on release also have the opportunity to have a Freshstart interview booked prior to release to enable them to attend a local Jobcentre within the first few days of discharge.
This provides them with opportunity to seek employment and links them into the benefit system.
Debt advice is provided across the prison estate through local management arrangements by a variety of voluntary and statutory organisations.
The average number of weekly hours of purposeful activity per prisoner during the last 10 years is shown in the following table.
Financial year Percentage 1996-97 23.8 1997-98 23.3 1998-99 22.8 1999-2000 23.2 2000-01 23.8 2001-02 23.4 2002-03 22.6 2003-04 23.1 2004-05 24.4 2005-06 25.2
Purposeful Activity ceased to be a Key Performance Indicator (KPI) in 2003-04 but remains an establishment-level Key Performance Target (KPT). Ministers agreed that outcome-based KPIs introduced in respect of education, rehabilitation and resettlement provide a better demonstration of the efforts to equip prisoners to be less likely to offend on release. Establishments are set annual targets for prisoner activity and performance continues to be monitored internally.
The average number of hours of time out of cell for each prisoner during the last 10 years is shown in the following table.
Average time out of cell per prisoner per weekday 1996-97 11.2 1997-98 10.9 1998-99 10.6 1999-2000 10.2 2000-01 9.6 2001-02 9.6 2002-03 9.8 2003-04 9.9 2004-05 10.0 2005-06 10.0
Average time out of cell per prisoner per weekday
This information is not kept routinely by the Prison Service. A resettlement survey commissioned in 2003-04 by the then Custody to Work Unit, Prison Service, showed that half of all female prisoners had dependent children (including stepchildren) under 18, and 46 per cent. of those women had lived with at least one dependent child before custody.
(2) what his most recent estimate is of the impact of family contact during imprisonment on an offender’s resettlement after release.
Prisoners have a statutory entitlement to social visits and are also able to earn additional visits under the Incentives and Earned Privileges Scheme, Statistics on the number of visits to prisoners are not centrally collated, as there is currently no universal way of recording such data.
As at 29 September 2006, the average distance from home for male prisoners was 50 miles, and for women prisoners the average distance from home was 58 miles.
Around 10,700 prisoners are located over 100 miles from home.
Distance from home is calculated using either home address, which is held for approximately 45 per cent. of prisoners, or where no home address is listed the committal court used a proxy.
As a condition of entry, visitors and all other persons entering a prison will be searched in accordance with the prison’s local searching strategy, which must be compliant with the Prison Service National Security Framework (NSF).
The NSF provides that domestic, official and professional visitors and staff are subject to a rub down search, a metal detector/portal scan and a passive drug dog search on entry. The level and frequency of such searches must be agreed between the Governor and Area Manager of each establishment, based on local needs and requirements. In exceptional circumstances, visitors may be subject to a full search.
The Prison Service is currently trialling a body orifice scanner in one high security prison. The trial involves detecting contraband held by prisoners and is not currently applied to staff or visitors entering prisons.
It is not possible to provide a costing for the machine as the cost is confidential within the contract.
The Home Office commissioned a substantial piece of research that identified patterns of drug use and supply routes. The six main routes identified were social visits, mail, new receptions, prison staff, over the perimeter wall and reception after court visits.
A comprehensive range of measures is in place to target these routes.
A survey, “Psychiatric morbidity among prisoners in England and Wales” (Office for National Statistics, 1998) showed that 90 per cent. of prisoners have at least one significant mental health problem, including personality disorder, psychosis, neurosis, alcohol misuse and drug dependence. A copy is available in the Library.
Mental health services for prisoners have been a key part of the Government's recent reforms of health services for prisoners. The Department of Health is now investing nearly £20 million a year in NHS mental health in-reach services for prisoners. These are community mental health teams working within prisons and are now available in 102 prisons, with some 360 extra staff employed. Every prison in England and Wales has access to these services.
Prisoners with severe mental health problems should be transferred and treated in hospital whenever possible. To help facilitate quicker transfers, a protocol has been issued setting out what must be done when a prisoner has been waiting for a hospital place for more than three months following acceptance by the NHS. Tighter monitoring has also been introduced to identify prisoners waiting an unacceptably long period for transfer.
In 2005, 24 per cent. more prisoners with mental illness too severe for prison were transferred to hospital than in 2002—up to 896 from 722. In the quarter ending September 2006, 43 prisoners had been waiting over 12 weeks for a transfer, down from 58 in the same quarter in 2005.
We are looking to further reduce the national waiting time standard for transfers between custodial settings and hospitals. Pilots of a 14-day maximum wait will take place in 15 mental health trusts next year.
Based on information compiled from incidents recorded on the Prison Service Incident Reporting System, the total number of recorded self-harm incidents in 2005 was approximately 21,600, with 9,100 involving male prisoners and 12,500 involving female prisoners. Many of these incidents involve the same individuals.
The cost per place in each type of prison establishment for 2005-06 is shown separately for the public and contracted sectors in the tables.
The Prison Service does not routinely collate cost-per-place data by specific elements of expenditure.
Function name Cost per prison place (£) Male category B 25,881 Male category C 21,976 Male dispersal 43,904 Female closed 34,617 Female local 37,366 Female open 23,932 Male closed YOI 32,887 Male juvenile 42,143 Male local 31,912 Male open 120,183 Male open YOI 27,413 Semi open 23,571 Prison totals 28,486
Cost per prison place (£)
Male category B
Male category C
Male closed YOI
Male open YOI
Function name Cost per prison place (£) Male category B 26,813 Male category C 20,855 Female closed 44,400 Male juvenile 48,669 Male local 33,805 Prison totals 33,722
Cost per prison place (£)
Male category B
Male category C
In 2005-06, the cost of the four secure training centres (STCs), commissioned from the private sector by the Youth Justice Board was £47.2 million, for 274 places. This represents a cost-per-place figure of £172,300.
The following table shows the average number of prisoners held two to a cell certified for one, for each of the last 10 years, and the number of prisoners held three to a cell certified for two, for each of the last three years. Three to a cell information is not available from before April 2003.
Average monthly: Financial year Doubling1 Three to a cell1 1996-97 9,498 n/a 1997-98 11,548 n/a 1998-99 12,024 n/a 1999-2000 12,221 n/a 2000-01 11,128 n/a 2001-02 11,449 n/a 2002-03 14,588 n/a 2003-04 16,363 1,270 2004-05 16,878 1,048 2005-06 16,986 1,133 n/a = not available. 1 Figures subject to rounding.
Three to a cell1
n/a = not available.
1 Figures subject to rounding.
The information requested is provided in the following table.
Number 1996 29 1997 38 1998 67 1999 63 2000 61 2001 50 2002 72 2003 82 2004 76 2005 69 Notes: 1. A crowded prison is defined as one in which the prison population is more than the certified normal accommodation. 2. Self-inflicted deaths includes all deaths where it appears the individual acted specifically to take their own life, not only those that received a suicide or open verdict at inquest
1. A crowded prison is defined as one in which the prison population is more than the certified normal accommodation.
2. Self-inflicted deaths includes all deaths where it appears the individual acted specifically to take their own life, not only those that received a suicide or open verdict at inquest
Secure arrangements are in place to transfer individual learning plans and records of prisoners’ achievements and aspirations as they move between prisons and from prison to the community. Further work is under way between the Learning and Skills Council and the National Offender Management Service to develop and introduce a comprehensive electronic system.
Based on the number of prisoners engaging in 2005-06 with the counselling, assessment, referral, advice and throughcare (CARAT) treatment service, 16 per cent. went on to engage with an intensive drug treatment programme. This figure excludes juvenile prisons.
Not all prisoners with a drug dependency require an intensive treatment programme or are in prison long enough to gain access.
The Prison Service spent £85.2 million on education in 2005-06. This represents 4.5 per cent. of the gross budget. The Prison Service fully recovered this expenditure by invoicing DfES, which holds the budget for prisoners’ education.
The net cost to the Prison Service was nil.
We do not collect this specific information. However, Department for Education and Skills statistics show that 82 per cent. of offenders have writing skills at or below those expected of an 11-year-old. For reading and numeracy the figures are 48 per cent. and 65 per cent. respectively.
As part of wider work to get prisoners into employment, assistance with completing job application forms is provided to prisoners including by Jobcentre Plus staff, prison officers, voluntary sector workers and peer advisers.