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Carbon Dioxide: Air Pollution

Volume 457: debated on Thursday 8 March 2007

To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (1) what the percentage change in UK emissions was of (a) carbon dioxide and (b) the Kyoto basket of six greenhouse gases between (i) 1990 and (ii) 1997 and the most recent year for which figures are available; and how this compares to other Kyoto Annex I countries; (118500)

(2) how much UK carbon dioxide emissions have changed in the UK in each year since 1990, and when the UK’s share of international shipping aviation emissions are included in the figures.

Table 1 shows the percentage change in Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions between 1990 and 2004, and 1997 and 2004; this is for those countries which are Annex I Parties to the Kyoto Protocol, and which reported emissions to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in 2006. Data for 2005 are not yet generally available for other countries. However, estimates recently published by my Department show that UK emissions of carbon dioxide and the Kyoto basket of six gases fell by 0.4 million tonnes and 3.1 million tonnes of CO2 equivalents respectively between 2004 and 2005.

Under the EU ETS, UK companies are able to buy emissions allowances from other EU countries to be taken into account when determining whether the Kyoto target and 2010 domestic goal have been met. The number of allowances issued to UK installations covered by the scheme was 27 million less than their emissions in 2005. The Electricity Supply Industry emitted 36.5 million tonnes more than its allocation; other sectors emitted 9.5 million tonnes less. Adjusted for emissions trading, UK CO2 emissions in 2005 were about 527 million tonnes—approximately 11 per cent. lower than 1990 levels and 3.9 per cent. below the 1997 level.

Table 2 shows UK CO2 emissions between 1990 and 2005 (the latest year for which data is available). Emissions from international shipping and international aviation are not included in totals used to judge progress against the UK’s domestic and international targets.

Table 1: annex I greenhouse gas emissions

Percentage change in:

Party

C02 emissions 1990-2004

C02 emissions 1997-2004

GHG emissions 1990-2004

GHG emissions 1997-2004

Kyoto target (percentage)

United Kingdom

-6.4

1.1

-14.4

-7.1

-12.5

Austria

21 .0

25.0

11 .5

16.2

-13

Belarus1

-52.5

-7.3

-46.2

-3.7

-8

Belgium

6.9

4.0

1.7

0.1

-7.5

Bulgaria1

-47.7

-28.1

-48.6

-22.7

-8

Canada

74.8

66.7

62.2

51.1

-6

Croatia1

-27.5

-321.9

-21.6

297.0

-5

Czech Republic1

-25.0

-8.0

-26.8

-8.0

-8

Denmark

-2.7

-17.6

-5.2

-15.9

-21

Finland

43.3

10.7

26.6

6.4

0

France

-1 .4

-0.1

-6.1

-4.7

0

Germany

-15.2

-3.7

-18.3

-6.6

-21

Greece

29.4

16.0

25.3

12.2

+25

Hungary1

-21.2

-3.8

-21.8

-2.1

-6

Iceland

-1.2

-7.1

-7.4

-5.7

+10

Ireland

38.3

17.0

22.8

7.4

+13

Italy

8.2

11.6

8.5

10.4

-6.5

Japan

11 .4

3.6

5.2

-0.3

-6

Latvia1

208.4

-20.5

-161.5

-31.9

-8

Netherlands

13.3

5.6

2.3

-3.5

-6

New Zealand

50.6

-28.1

17.9

-1.4

0

Norway

-12.4

-33.6

-18.8

-25.5

+1

Portugal

34.5

26.0

28.8

19.1

+27

Romania1

-38.2

-5.7

-38.5

-4.1

-8

Slovakia1

-34.2

-11.6

-34.1

-11.0

-8

Spain

57.6

37.8

50.5

30.8

+15

Sweden

12.8

-10.1

6.4

-9.5

+4

Ukraine1

-58.5

-4.3

-57.2

-5.7

0

1 A party undergoing the process of transition to a market economy (an economies in transition (EIT) party).

Table 2: UK CO2 emissions between 1990 and 2005

UK CO2 emissions/million tonnes of CO2 (MtCO2)

Percentage change since 1990

UKCO2 emissions including UK international shipping and aviation bunkers/MtCO2

Percentage change in CO2 emissions since 1990, including international bunkers

1990

592.1

637.3

1991

598.9

1.1

643.2

0.9

1992

581.9

-1.7

630.1

-1.1

1993

567

-4.2

617.3

-3.1

1994

559.2

-5.6

610.1

-4.3

1995

549.6

-7.2

603.9

-5.2

1996

571.3

-3.5

629.3

-1.3

1997

548.4

-7.4

610.9

-4.1

1998

550.1

-7.1

619.3

-2.8

1999

540.8

-8.7

609.4

-4.4

2000

548.8

-7.3

621.5

-2.5

2001

559.6

-5.5

632.2

-0.8

2002

543.2

-8.3

612.5

-3.9

2003

555.1

-6.2

625.4

-1.9

2004

554.6

-6.3

633.4

-0.6

2005

554.2

-6.4

636.8

-0.1

20051

527.2

-11 .0

609.8

-4.3

1 Taking into account the impact of the EU ETS.