The 1944 Chicago Convention on Civil Aviation, to which some 190 states are signatories, underpins the framework within which those, who no longer qualify to remain on the territory of a particular country, can be removed. Those arrangements generally operate successfully on a day- to-day basis, but there may be a need to enter into discussions or secure more formal arrangements with individual countries to enhance our ability to return. As part of strengthening this process we have signed Memoranda of Understanding (MoUs) on returns with Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, China, India, Iran, Iraq, Nigeria, Pakistan, Somaliland, United Arab Emirates (Dubai) and Vietnam. The UK has also opted-in to decisions to mandate the EU Commission to negotiate 16 readmission agreements on behalf of member states. In addition, we have bilateral readmission agreements with Albania, Bulgaria, Romania and Switzerland. An agreement has been signed with Algeria and is currently in the process of ratification.
In effecting the removal of those who do not qualify to remain in the United Kingdom (UK), we do not distinguish between failed asylum seekers and other immigration offenders.