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International Development

Volume 475: debated on Wednesday 30 April 2008

The Secretary of State was asked—

Food Prices

1. What assessment his Department has made of the effect of increases in world food prices on developing countries. (202410)

The Government are very concerned about the effect of rising food prices on developing countries. According to the World Bank, 850 million people are already going hungry, and as prices rise that number will increase. The international community must act now both to help the world’s poorest people to cope and to address the underlying causes of the current hardship. Last week, the Prime Minister hosted a meeting with leading experts, including the head of the World Food Programme, to strengthen the international response to the growing crisis. In addition, the UK Government announced a £455 million aid package to provide assistance to the hardest hit and to address long-term solutions.

The new money is welcome, although only £30 million is going into emergency food aid. Given that many commentators have been predicting that the dash for biofuels would result in exactly the sort of negative consequences that we are seeing in world food markets, why is it only now that the right hon. Gentleman’s Department is sounding a cautionary note about the use of biofuels? Will he confirm whether he is opposed to or in favour of the continued use of the renewable transport fuels obligations?

The Government have announced the Gallagher review to ensure that the full economic, environmental and social impact of biofuel production is taken into account. However, I am intrigued by the hon. Gentleman’s line of questioning, given the position that his own party’s leader took on the renewable transport fuels obligation. The right hon. Member for Witney (Mr. Cameron) said that—

We all acknowledge that rising living standards, biofuels and some crop failures have all had an impact on rising prices, but is it not a fact that prices have been pushed up to astronomical levels by rampant speculation in the market? Are not these speculators gambling with people’s lives, so what will the international community do about it?

As I made clear, a range of different people from a range of different parties have previously argued the case for biofuels, but it is right to recognise that a range of different causes are affecting the rise in food prices. There has been a drought in Australia, which has significantly affected agricultural production; there is, of course, concern about biofuels; there is a rise in commodity prices, not least in the cost of petroleum, which has contributed to a rise in input costs such as fertiliser; and consideration needs to be given to the operation of the agricultural market. That is why we have continued to argue the case for common agricultural policy reform and why our own Prime Minister made clear to G8 leaders the need for a co-ordinated international response.

Does the Secretary of State accept that the encouragement of home production is a legitimate part of the response to the world food crisis?

There appears to be conflicting evidence as to whether the immediate challenge that we face is a function of sufficient levels of food but inadequacy of distribution through the market, or a global deficit in food production. That is why we need to consider the approach both of the UK Government and of the European Union, while addressing the immediate humanitarian need and raising levels of agricultural production elsewhere in the world, particularly in Africa, where we have seen a decline in agricultural productivity in recent decades, in sharp contrast to countries such as India where we have seen a significant uplift.

May I draw my right hon. Friend’s attention to the worldwide online petition on the crisis, launched by the international citizens’ movement, Avaaz, which has already been signed by almost 100,000 people? I invite my right hon. Friend to sign it, as I have. Does he agree that the petition confirms that people worldwide are demanding action from world leaders to solve this crisis—action now, not months of talking and negotiation?

I agree entirely. It is of real concern to billions of people around the world that 850 million people are already hungry, and that the figure is potentially set to rise. That not only presents a challenge to the Government, who have sought a genuinely co-ordinated international response, but imposes a responsibility on business, civil society and individuals.

Will the Secretary of State acknowledge that there is a need for sustainable biofuels, and that a major reason for rising food prices is rising living standards in countries such as China and India? Will he redeploy the resources at his Department’s disposal to ensure that we can raise productivity levels in parts of Africa using the expertise that exists in this country, which the International Development Committee has called on the Government to mobilise more effectively in the future?

It is true that significant and sustained economic growth in China is leading to a different pattern of consumption—principally an increase in meat consumption, which is a direct consequence of the fall in the production of maize and other crops in recent years. The right hon. Gentleman made a more general point about biofuels. Of course we must distinguish between those that may be sustainable and those that are judged not to be. We are at risk of demonising the whole issue of biofuels, when what we actually need are facts rather than anecdotes.

As for the right hon. Gentleman’s substantive point about DFID’s contribution, at the meeting that he attended in Downing street last week we were able to announce the provision of £400 million for agricultural research, and we want to see that money flow into exactly the sort of productivity increase to which he has referred.

The dash for biofuels is beginning to have a real effect on the food market—it is leading to food shortages in some countries, and we have observed the escalation of prices—but what effect is it having in countries that are offering people huge grants to grow crops for biofuels rather than food? Is that not what will really damage the world in future?

As I have said, I expect the Gallagher review to examine precisely those issues in trying to discern the contribution of biofuels to sustainability, or to a lack of sustainability. A range of subsidies has been introduced by a range of countries for different reasons to support biofuel production. Research is important to our understanding of the challenge of sustainability, but, as our Prime Minister pointed out in his letter, we also need a co-ordinated international response to ensure that the dialogue is not limited to the United Kingdom but takes place in the other countries that are producing biofuels.

The Secretary of State is right to draw attention to the increasingly alarming reports of rising food prices and the resulting food shortages. At yesterday’s summit in Geneva, it was reported that the emergency appeal for assistance had reached barely half its target. I acknowledge the Government’s contribution, but the Secretary of State spoke of calls for international co-ordination. What tangible steps are our European partners and the G8 countries taking in response to that appeal, and is the British Government’s contribution a fixed financial amount or will it be used to buy a particular quality of food supplies?

We do not tend to provide food aid in the same way as the United States Government, who purchase in bulk and then transfer food. We provide resources that are available to be used in-country, often for local sourcing. I should be happy to write to the hon. Gentleman listing the countries in which the money—approximately £30 million, or $60 million—to support the World Food Programme’s efforts to raise, I believe, $500 million is being used. The United States has made a significant contribution to that appeal as well.

We will continue to discuss this issue with our European partners. I strongly welcome yesterday’s statement by Ban Ki-moon, the United Nations Secretary-General, about the need for a co-ordinated response. I am also encouraged by the response from the Bretton Woods institutions—the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank—to the letter that our Prime Minister issued ahead of the spring meetings, arguing for exactly that focus at the G8 meeting that will take place in Japan in July.

Much of what the Secretary of State has announced about the food crisis is welcome, but is he not somewhat embarrassed by the finding of a report produced by his own Department last year that Ministers have failed to support agriculture in the developing world? Have not rising food prices been met by alarming ministerial complacency?

I thought it would not take the Conservatives long to blame the Department for the global phenomenon of rising food prices. As I said, only last week I was able to announce the investment of £400 million in agricultural research. We have been a major funder of such research over a number of years. The Department has expertise in the shape of, for instance, livelihoods advisers. However, it is right to recognise the challenge presented by the need to raise levels of productivity in a range of countries, and we are working with international partners to achieve that goal.

But this is the Department for International Development’s own report, and it says that direct spending on agriculture by the Department has halved over the past 10 years. Therefore, do we not now need Ministers to bring forward plans to bind together Government, business and scientific research in a new global partnership for agriculture similar to the one that delivered the green revolution in Asia in the 1960s?

DFID spends about £120 million a year on agriculture. We have increased to about £55 million a year our financing for safety nets programmes in Bangladesh and many African countries, which support the poorest farmers and their families in those countries, and we have increased spending on rural infrastructure. Last year, we spent £34 million to reduce the cost of transportation in Africa. The emphasis that I have placed within the Department on growth in Africa naturally and inevitably means a focus on agriculture given the role of smallholder agriculture in Africa. It is right to recognise that we need to work with international partners on agricultural productivity, and we have done that and will continue to do so. It is also right to recognise that we have in recent days made a sizeable contribution to agricultural research.

Gender Equality

2. What steps his Department has taken to promote gender equality in access to education in developing countries. (202411)

The UK Government have committed £8.5 billion for education in developing countries over the 10 years to 2015. We support education plans, policies and programmes that ensure that girls as well as boys benefit in developing countries.

When we educate a girl, we also improve the life chances of a future family. In particular, there is a direct link between educating girls and reductions in maternal and infant mortality, but change is not happening fast enough. Will the Government therefore take vigorous steps to increase their efforts at every level, including with other Governments, to ensure that every girl has access to a classroom?

What my hon. Friend says is right. Educating girls is one of the best investments that a country can make to further its social and economic development and to improve health. We know that women who have been to school have fewer children, which reduces the risks to them of childbirth and makes it more likely that they will be able to access the care that they need. In addition, their children are healthier; for example, they are 50 per cent. more likely to be immunised. I can therefore confirm to my hon. Friend that although we are making very good progress in getting girls into school, we will be accelerating that work through the call to action and the United Nations-hosted meeting in September. Indeed, our own work through 10-year education plans is bearing fruit.

I welcome the Minister’s response on this important subject, but is it not also the case that girls who are educated for seven years or more are much more likely to be empowered to reduce the risk of HIV/AIDS in their own lives and in their family? Therefore, if we are to tackle that terrible global disease, is not empowering young women by educating them one of our highest priorities? I commend what the Minister has already said and done, but will she go even further and do even more?

I welcome that commendation from the hon. Gentleman, and I thank him for his recognition of the work that the Government and others have done in promoting education. Education has been described to me as a social vaccine against HIV and AIDS, and I concur. Girls who stay in school are much more likely to know key prevention techniques and to persuade their partners to use them, and are less likely to become HIV-positive. The figures speak for themselves. In Swaziland, two thirds of teenage girls in school are free from HIV, whereas two thirds of girls out of school have HIV. Such figures concentrate our minds.

Over the Easter recess, I met two teenage girls in Goma who are desperate to resume their education but cannot leave their camp for fear of being attacked or raped by rebel soldiers or the army. Will the Minister urge the Secretary of State in his forthcoming visit to the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda to press both Governments to do all they can to uphold the recent peace accords, in order to bring peace to eastern Congo and to allow those girls to resume their education?

My hon. Friend makes an important point, and I am sure that my right hon. Friend the Secretary of State will take steps in that regard. It is, indeed, the case that one of the reasons why girls do not go to school in the numbers that they should is that schools are not necessarily the safest places. Therefore, in addition to my hon. Friend’s points, I would emphasise the work that we are doing in respect of safer and accessible transport, the provision of separate toilets, teacher training, and work to reduce violence against women in their own homes.

I was lucky enough to visit a couple of DFID-funded projects in Nepal when I was there over the Easter recess to monitor the elections. People are working very hard to get more women into the education system, and into jobs and work. I was concerned by the incoming Maoist Government, who were saying that they did not want what they see as “new imperialism” from the west, in regard to both that area and the Gurkhas. Will the Minister tell us what discussions she has had with the Maoists in Nepal about continuing and expanding these particular projects?

The hon. Gentleman will be glad to learn that the Under-Secretary of State for International Development, my hon. Friend the Member for Dewsbury (Mr. Malik), will be visiting Nepal in the near future. I will raise the hon. Gentleman’s comments with the Foreign Secretary.

HIV/AIDS

3. What progress has been made in halting and reversing the spread of HIV and AIDS globally by 2015 in accordance with millennium development goal 7. (202412)

Progress is being made in the international effort to tackle HIV and AIDS. There has, for example, been a significant scaling up in the level of financial assistance to tackle the epidemic, and the number of people receiving antiretroviral treatment in poor countries has risen from 400,000 to more than 2 million. There is, however, a lot more to do.

Will the Minister take this opportunity to distance himself from the more weird and wacky groups that are suggesting that abstinence is the only way to combat HIV/AIDS in parts of the world? Will he also take the opportunity to tell the House that as many moneys will go via voluntary organisations and non-governmental organisations as will go through some of the dubious central Governments who operate in the areas most afflicted by HIV/AIDS?

I can confirm to my hon. Friend that we do not support abstinence-only programmes for HIV prevention, because none of the available evidence suggests that such programmes are an effective strategy for HIV prevention. He raised a point about the valuable contribution that voluntary sector organisations make. I have had the privilege of seeing some of the work that Christian Aid supports in southern Africa, so I take his point about the need for us to continue to work with the voluntary sector. I hope that he will recognise that where we can have confidence in the commitment of Governments to preventing HIV and AIDS, we should continue to help them scale up their ability to tackle AIDS in their countries.

Will the Department’s forthcoming AIDS strategy continue to contain a dedicated funding target for AIDS, and will a percentage of that funding be allocated to supporting vulnerable children and orphans, as happens today?

The reason why the strategy is forthcoming is that there is still work to do on its preparation, so I cannot give the hon. Gentleman a preview of what it will contain. One of the reasons why we included specific targets when we published our previous AIDS strategy in July 2004 was to generate significant new political momentum behind the effort to fight AIDS in general and the AIDS orphans crisis. I hope that he will recognise, from the research that he has done, that political momentum behind the fight against AIDS has increased significantly and that much greater effort is being put into tackling the specific problems faced by AIDS orphans.

Although it is recognised that there are many health-related problems in the developing world, does my hon. Friend agree that when money is specifically targeted at preventing HIV/AIDS and reversing that trend in that area, it should be spent on tackling HIV/AIDS and not on other health-related issues?

We need to do both. We must ensure not only that we continue to help tackle the HIV/AIDS epidemic, but, as the question from my hon. Friend the Member for Warrington, South (Helen Southworth) indicated, that we do more to tackle a range of other health conditions. We cannot fight AIDS without more health workers—more doctors and more nurses—in-country, and we cannot tackle infant and child mortality without there being more health workers in place. We need to do more to tackle the specific problems associated with HIV/AIDS, but we must also ensure that our response to HIV/AIDS helps to tackle those broader health questions.

Does the Minister accept that on the continent of Africa where HIV/AIDS is a particularly acute problem, as well as education, the other key area is the elimination of corruption, so that the resources deployed can reach those at risk in certain nation states?

We have had many exchanges in the House about the difficulties that corruption causes for Governments who want to help the poorest people in their countries. That is why we have a considerable number of safeguards to help to ensure that our money is spent effectively and goes where it is needed, and to help developing countries to build up their own defences against corruption. I agree that we need to continue to do more in that area.

The hon. Gentleman is also right to say that we must do more to promote education, especially girls’ education and access to primary education more generally. That is one of the reasons why my right hon. Friends the Secretary of State and the Prime Minister have made the commitment to an £8.5 billion investment over the next 10 years from the UK to seek to achieve those objectives.

Saudi Arabia

Human rights are a key issue for UK Ministers and are among the many issues that my right hon. Friend the Foreign Secretary and I discuss on a regular basis. While we welcome efforts to address human rights in Saudi Arabia, the UK Government continue to raise concerns about the human rights situation and to work closely with the Saudi Government to encourage reform.

The oppression of women is a matter of daily life and capital and corporal punishment are part of the Saudis’ abuses of human rights. Can the Minister assure me that he will work with colleagues in the Foreign Office to ensure that the Saudi regime is not allowed to continue those practices, which are condemned by the rest of the world?

I can give the assurance to my hon. Friend that we continue to press Saudi Arabia to adopt the recommendations of the convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women, and in 2007, when we hosted the two kingdoms dialogue at Lancaster house, discussions included specific measures in the area of women’s rights.

As chairman of the all-party group on Saudi Arabia, I can tell the Minister that, following my discussions with the Foreign Secretary this week, he was pleased—following his visit to that country—with the tremendous advances on human rights. Will the Minister join me in congratulating King Abdullah and his Government on the advances that they are making in improving human rights?

Of course we welcome any progress that is made on human rights. I know that a productive and effective meeting took place in Riyadh between the Foreign Secretary and the Government of Saudi Arabia.

Economic Partnership Agreements

We anticipate that the economic partnership agreements that have been agreed with 35 African, Caribbean and Pacific countries will be signed formally over the next 18 months. We will provide aid for trade support to help those ACP countries implement and benefit from the new opportunities provided by EPAs.

The Prime Minister has said that poor countries must be allowed the flexibility to decide, plan and sequence their own trade reforms. However, an analysis last week by Oxfam showed that the interim economic partnership agreements that were hastily concluded in December could mean that Africa loses $360 million each year in tariff cuts. Does the Minister think that an independent evaluation of the EPAs should be made with an eye to revisiting problem areas before the deals are finally signed?

I was at a United Nations Conference on Trade and Development meeting in Ghana last week and had the opportunity to discuss the interim EPAs that have been initialled by many of the non-least developed countries, and also to discuss EPAs with LDCs. There was significant support from several of those countries for the interim EPAs. The hon. Lady is right to note that some countries have highlighted one or two issues, and we want the Commission to continue to show flexibility in responding to those concerns. We need to recognise that the duty and quota-free access offer that the Commission has made to non-LDCs is a significant step forward and that many of the ACP countries, such as Botswana and some Caribbean countries, have been warmly supportive of the efforts that the Commission has made to help them with better trading opportunities in the European Union.

What are the Government doing to help African countries to trade with one another by reducing the tariffs that they impose on one another and strengthening the infrastructure to allow transport links from one African country to another?

My hon. Friend makes a good point about the importance of regional integration. We continue to highlight that as one of the potential benefits of moving from interim economic partnership agreements to full regional economic partnership agreements. As I said in my previous answer, we continue to encourage the Commission to show additional flexibility so that we can move from the interim EPAs that have been signed with individual countries to full regional EPAs over the coming months.

Order. Before I start Prime Minister’s Question Time, may I point out that it is only right and fitting that hon. Members should be heard when they are putting questions? Sustained shouting looks bad and it is not good for the reputation of the House. I have already had a quiet word with Mr. Campbell.