The findings from each annual report of the Citizenship Education Longitudinal study cannot be viewed in isolation. Together they will inform policy development and enable us to improve the quality and delivery of citizenship education. The sixth annual report recognises that citizenship education, although a very helpful measure, is unlikely by itself to address the ‘democratic deficit’. It suggests that schools and citizenship education provision are likely to have an indirect influence through democracy in schools and student efficacy on student attitudes and intentions. As we set out in the Children’s Plan, the Government’s aim are for all young people to want and be able to participate and take responsible action. We believe that the new duty on schools to invite and consider the views of pupils on matters that affect them will help to strengthen efficacy levels among children and young people and encourage them to continue to play an active part in their community.