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Reoffenders

Volume 488: debated on Tuesday 3 March 2009

To ask the Secretary of State for Justice if he will commission research on the effects on the re-offending rate of (a) penal custody, (b) restorative justice programmes and (c) local authority secure accommodation. (259559)

The Ministry of Justice has an ongoing research and analysis programme which addresses a wide range of interventions. The programme for 2009-10 is currently being agreed.

On (a) penal custody: Reoffending statistics are published regularly by the Department. The proven re-offending rate for offenders discharged from prison was 46.5 per cent. in 2006.

On (b) restorative justice: Between 2001 and 2004 the Government invested around £5 million in the crime reduction programme restorative justice pilots and their evaluation, including a two-year reconviction study. Four reports were published. Restorative justice has proven itself as a way of increasing victim satisfaction with the criminal justice process, and may also help to reduce reoffending for adults.

On (c) local authority secure accommodation: The Youth Justice Board commissioned a research study in 2008 which aims to explore reoffending rates of different types of custodial provision, including local authority secure accommodation.

References:

(a) Ministry of Justice (2008) Reoffending of adults: results from the 2006 cohort, England and Wales. Statistics bulletin

(b) Shapland, J., Atkinson, A., Colledge, I., Dignan, J., Howes, M., Johnstone, J., Pennant, R., Robinson, G., and Sorsby A. (2004) “Implementing restorative justice schemes (Crime Reduction Programme). A report on the first year”. Home Office Online Report 32/04

Shapland, J., Atkinson, A., Atkinson, H., Chapman, B., Dignan, J., Howes, M., Johnstone, J., Robinson, G. and Sorsby, A. (2006) “Restorative justice in practice, findings from the second phase of the evaluation of three schemes”. Findings 274. London: Home Office

Shapland, J., Atkinson, A., Atkinson, H., Chapman, B., Dignan, J., Howes, M., Johnstone, J., Robinson, G. and Sorsby, A. (2007) “Restorative justice: the views of victims and offenders: the third report from the evaluation of three schemes”. Ministry of Justice Research Series 3/07

Shapland, J., Atkinson, A., Atkinson, H., Dignan, J., Edwards, L., Hibbert, J., Howes, M., Johnstone, J., Robinson, G. and Sorsby, A. “Does restorative justice affect reconviction? The fourth report from the evaluation of three schemes”. Ministry of Justice Research Series 10/08

To ask the Secretary of State for Justice how many and what proportion of offenders re-offended within (a) six months, (b) one year, (c) two years and (c) three years of release from a custodial sentence in each of the last five years. (259616)

Table 1 shows the one year reoffending rates for adults leaving custody in the first quarter of the years 2002 to 2006. The table shows the number and proportion of offenders that committed at least one further offence. The number of offences committed per 100 reoffenders is now the headline measure of reoffending—this has also been included in the table.

Table 1: one year reoffending rates, offenders leaving custody 2002-2006

Cohort

Number of offenders

Number of reoffenders (1 year)

Percentage proportion of offenders offending (1 year)

Number of offences per 100 offenders (1 year)

Quarter 1

2002

15,578

8,574

55.0

288.2

2003

14,358

7,738

53.9

279.1

2004

15,761

8,185

51.9

253.1

2005

14,595

7,165

49.1

228.5

2006

14,380

6,686

46.5

208.4

Two year reoffending rates are available for the 2000 to 2005 cohorts. The number and proportion of offenders that committed at least one further offence are shown in table 2.

Table 2: two years reoffending rates, offenders leaving custody 2000-2005

Number of offenders

Number of reoffenders (2 years)

Percentage proportion of offenders offending (2 years)

Quarter 1

2000

16,527

10,709

64.8

2002

15,887

10,708

67.4

2003

15,305

10,071

65.8

2004

16,385

10,601

64.7

2005

14,713

9,140

62.1

It should be noted that comparisons between the one and two year rates should be interpreted with caution. This is due to a slight improvement in the method used to count offenders released from custody (or starting court orders under probation supervision) when we moved to measuring reoffending over one year rather than two.

Data on six month and three year reoffending rates are not currently available. The Ministry of Justice is currently undertaking a programme of work to investigate reoffending rates over longer time periods. This will include analysis of three year reoffending rates.

Further information on the one year rates of reoffending can be found in:

http://www.justice.gov.uk/publications/reoffendingofadults.htm

Further information on the two year rates can be found in:

http://rds.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs05/hosb2505.pdf

To ask the Secretary of State for Justice (1) with reference to his Department’s report, Re-offending of adults: new measures of re-offending 2000-05, how many offenders have had multiple offender entries in each of the last five years; (259617)

(2) with reference to his Department's report, Re-offending of adults: new measures of re-offending 2000-05, how many individual offenders entered the cohort and committed a further offence and were discharged from prison or commenced a community sentence within the same quarter in each of the last five years.

A multiple offender entry (MOE) is an individual offender who, after entering the cohort (by either being discharged from prison, or commencing a court order under probation supervision), commits a reoffence and is further discharged from prison or commences a court order within the same 1st quarter period in a given year. MOEs are excluded from our analysis of reoffending, in order to ensure that there is no double-counting in each cohort.

The following table shows the number of offenders who are MOEs and their respective number of entries between 2000 and 2006 (the latest available data). Most MOE offenders appear twice in the cohort and the number of MOEs has been constant, at around 2.5 per cent. of the entire cohort of offenders since 2000.

Q1

Multiple offender entries (MOEs)

2000

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2x

1,018

1,006

1,088

1,239

1,040

1,307

3x

31

34

36

75

38

52

4x

5

2

3

5

3

6

5x

1

6x

3

Total MOEs

1,054

1,042

1,127

1,320

1,084

1,365

Percentage of total cohort

2.4

2.3

2.5

2.8

2.4

2.7

Note:

Data are not available for 2001 due to a problem with archived data on court orders. Since it will not substantially increase knowledge on the current progress on reoffending, no resources have been allocated to fix this problem.

We have assumed that the second question is also related to multiple offender entries, and that the term ‘within the same quarter’ refers to the quarter in which the cohort is compiled (between 1 January and 31 March of a given year). A break down of these figures by prison and court orders is not available.

Further information on multiple offender entries can be found in Annex C of the publication Reoffending of Adults: results from the 2006 cohort:

http://www.justice.gov.uk/publications/reoffendingofadults.htm