The Government established the National Centre for Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) in 2004 for research into alternatives to the use of animals in research. The NC3Rs receives funding from the Department through the Medical Research Council (MRC) and the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC). Since its launch, the MRC and BBSRC have provided the NC3RS with £661,000 in 2004/05, £667,000 in 2005/06, £1,829,000 in 2006/07 and £2,368,000 in 2007/08. The two research councils have allocated the NC3Rs £3,468,000 in 2008/09, £4,268,000 in 2009/10 and £5,068,000 in 2010/11. The Secretary of State, other DIUS Ministers and DIUS officials have not held any recent discussions with the NC3Rs regarding funding levels. Future funding for the NC3Rs will be discussed in the context of the next spending review.