HIV prevalence is very low in Kosovo. The National Institute of Public Health in Kosovo (NIPH) stated that there were 67 HIV positive people in 2006. However, with a very young population, high unemployment and increases in drug use, Kosovo presents an environment where HIV infection could increase rapidly.
The tuberculosis notification rate in Kosovo remains high compared to other Balkans countries but the trend has been downwards. Although there was a slight rise in 2005 to 52 cases per 100,000 people, the number of new cases in that year was half the number reported in 2001.