A large estate such as that occupied by the UK Border Agency is likely to have some surplus property at times, especially as it is consolidating the number of properties it has to deliver better value for the taxpayer overall. Where a property is empty the Agency is required to declare the costs associated with that property while UKBA retains the lease. In 2008-09 payments for the empty properties were £1,072 million, comprising rent, rates, and a nominal amount for utilities. This represents 1 per cent. of the cost of running the UKBA estate. Overall the agency has benefited from reduced property, IT and productivity gains from rationalisation that outweigh these costs.