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Written Answers

Volume 670: debated on Thursday 10 March 2005

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Written Answers

Thursday, 10 March 2005.

Montserrat

asked Her Majesty's Government:What implications of the tsunami disaster have been identified as relevant to the reconstruction programme in Montserrat and the disaster mitigation policies of the Caribbean region. [HL1380]

A UN-funded integrated vulnerability assessment, published in February 2003, reported on all forms of risk to Montserrat, including tsunamis. The report recommended that, for planning purposes, buildings should be four metres above mean sea level. Because of Montserrat's mountainous terrain, nearly all construction takes place on high ground. The island's government are taking this recommendation into account in their detailed planning for the proposed development of the Little Bay area, some of which is low-lying.Seismic activity in the Caribbean is monitored by the University of the West Indies, which has direct access to the Montserrat Government's Emergency Department and similar regional bodies. Montserrat has a system in place, established with DfID funding, in order to warn the public in the event of a tsunami or any other natural disaster.More generally, the Caribbean Disaster Emergency Response Agency (CDERA) has been mandated by the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) to advise it on all issues related to tsunami threats, and to develop proposals for establishing a regional tsunami warning system. DfID is monitoring progress on this initiative through its regional office in Barbados and through its disaster management adviser for the Caribbean Overseas Territories who is presently based in the Turks and Caicos Islands.

Kenya

asked Her Majesty's Government:In view of the recent allegations by the United Kingdom's High Commissioner in Kenya of corruption in named contracts concerning the Kenyan Government, and the United States Ambassador's threatened suspension of aid to Kenya, what steps they intend to take to suspend or cancel aid from the United Kingdom to Kenya. [HL1436]

DfID has no immediate plans to suspend or cancel the UK's development assistance to Kenya. DfID has produced clear guidance on the relationship between development assistance and tackling political governance issues of the type being faced in Kenya, and a co-ordinated and common response across the donor community will have more impact than working independently.DfID has made it clear to the government of Kenya (GoK), together with other donors, that action is required on behalf of the GoK to restore the confidence of the people of Kenya and rebuild the Government's credibility, including in the fight against corruption. DfID will not consider any support through the government budget and will argue against multilateral budget support unless and until this action is taken and confidence is restored.Kenya is making some progress. Implementation of the free primary education policy is applauded internationally and has brought an additional 1.3 million children into school. The fight against HIV/AIDS is moving in the right direction, and there are things DfID can and should do to make a difference to people's lives in Kenya. That is why around 50 per cent of the programme is currently spent on improving the health of women and children and combating HIV/ AIDS. There are compelling human and economic reasons for accelerating this work. For example, DFID expects to have distributed more than 11 million insecticide-treated bednets by the end of 2006, saving 170,000 lives.The development assistance provided by DfID does not go through the government budget. Over 70 per cent of the programme is and will continue to be targeted on education and health. All these funds are managed separately by financial management agents or through special, earmarked accounts or provided directly to civil society. In this way fiduciary risks are minimised while delivering key benefits to poor Kenyans and making a real contribution towards the millennium development goals.

Attorney-General: Ministerial Meetings

asked Her Majesty's Government:Whether the Attorney-General normally requires a minute or other record of ministerial meetings in which he is involved. [HL1497]

It is for the department hosting a ministerial meeting to decide whether it keeps a record.

Iraq: Legal Advice

asked Her Majesty's Government:Whether, following the advice the Attorney-General gave to the Government on the legality of war against Iraq on 28 February 2003, he received any comments or representations from (a) the Prime Minister; (b) the Prime Minister's office; (c) the Prime Minister's foreign policy adviser; (d) the Prime Minister's Director of Government Relations; or (e) the Lord Chancellor, about the content of that advice; and, if so, whether the Attorney-General modified his advice in any way following such representations. [HL1500]

After I had communicated my view of the legal position at a meeting at the end of February 2003, no representations were made to me by the Prime Minister, his foreign policy adviser, his Director of Government Relations, members of his office, or anyone else, about the content of my legal advice. The advice I gave was my own genuinely held and independent view.It has been drawn to my attention that there is a minor error in the information provided by my office to the Butler review of intelligence on weapons of mass destruction. The meeting referred to in paragraph 378 of the Butler report took place on 27, not 28, February 2003.

Astute Class Submarines

asked Her Majesty's Government:When they plan to order further Astute class submarines. [HL1600]

A contract was placed in March 1997 for the design and manufacture of three Astute class submarines. Orders for the procurement of further Astute boats are being considered and announcements will be made at the appropriate time.

asked Her Majesty's Government:What is the planned build time for the fourth and subsequent Astute class submarines. [HL1601]

Percentage of half days missed due to unauthorised absence 1994–2004
Academic Year1995199619971998199920002001200220032004
(a) specialist schools10.50.60.60.70.80.90.91.01.01.0
(b) selective schools0.10.10.10.10.10.10.10.10.10.1
(c) community schools1.31.31.31.41.31.31.31.31.31.4
(d) city academies3.03.1
(e) voluntary aided schools0.90.90.80.80.70.70.70.80.70.8
(f) city technology colleges0.20.20.20.10.10.20.20.20.20.3
(g) special schools3.03.12.83.02.82.52.52.42.22.0
(h) voluntary controlled Schools0.90.80.91.01.01.01.01.01.01.0
1The figures are based on schools that were specialist at the start of the relevant academic year. The number of specialist schools has increased significantly over time.
Unauthorised absence is absence without leave from a teacher or other authorised representative of the school. It includes pupils who are late or who take time off with parents' consent—for example, for a holiday which the school will not authorise.

There are three Astute class submarines currently on order with BAe Systems. Orders for the procurement of further Astute boats are being considered and announcements will be made at the appropriate time.

Councillors: Complaints

asked Her Majesty's Government:How many councillors have been suspended or disqualified as a result of complaints to the Standards Board for England in each month since it was set up; and which authorities they served on. [HL1538]

The information requested has been made available in the Library of the House.

Schools: Truancy

asked Her Majesty's Government:In each of the past 10 years, what were the levels of truancy throughout England in:

  • (a) specialist schools;
  • (b) grammar schools;
  • (c) community schools;
  • (d) city academies;
  • (e) voluntary aided schools;
  • (f) city technology colleges;
  • (g) special schools; and
  • (h) voluntary controlled schools. [HL1491]
  • The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Department for Education and Skills
    (Lord Filkin)

    The information requested is shown in the following table.

    Public Sector Pensions

    asked Her Majesty's Government:Whether they are fulfilling their commitment to engage in effective dialogue over the future of public sector pensions; and whether they will soon engage in fresh negotiations on public sector pensions with all public sector trade unions affiliated to the Trades Union Congress. [HL1532]

    The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Department for Culture, Media and Sport
    (Lord McIntosh of Haringey)

    Each public service scheme is the subject of a separate review led by the responsible department. Schemes have been consulting on proposals for reform. In some cases consultation is over, in other cases consultation is still in progress. To allow consideration of all the relevant issues it is right for the reviews to continue, accepting representations from all stakeholders, including the trade unions, as at present.

    Public Services: Good Governance

    asked Her Majesty's Government:Whether they accept the report Good Governance Standards for Public Services, issued by the Independent Commission for Good Governance in Public Services; and, if so, what instructions they will give to (a) government departments; (b) non-departmental public bodies; and (c) other public corporations. [HL1547]

    The Government welcome this contribution to improving standards of good governance in a wide variety of public service organisations. The Government also provide guidance on good governance to central government departments and non-departmental public bodies.The Chairman of the Independent Commission on Good Governance in Public Services has written to government departments inviting them to take the standard into account when reviewing their own guidance. These departments are well placed to consider the best way of doing this.

    Olympic Games 2012: London Bid

    asked Her Majesty's Government:Further to the Written Answer by the Lord McIntosh of Haringey on 24 February (

    WA 230), whether the differing criteria used in the bid for the 2012 Olympic Games were drawn to the attention of the bid team during its visit; and, if not, whether they will draw them to the bid team's attention. [HL1551]

    The criteria used for the table in 12.14 of the candidate file were not specifically brought to the attention of the International Olympic Committee's Evaluation Commission during its thorough assessment of the security arrangements for the bid during the visit. The evaluation commission heard detailed presentations on security from Sir Ian Blair, Commissioner for the Metropolitan Police, and Sir David Veness, Assistant Commissioner Specialist Operations, and examined the proposals by asking extensive questions to a panel of experts, which included a senior representative from the Home Office. London 2012 confirms that all the questions asked by the evaluation commission on the security theme were comprehensively answered.

    Maternity Pay

    asked Her Majesty's Government:What percentage of statutory maternity pay is reimbursed to employers; and over what period. [HL1566]

    The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Department for Work and Pensions
    (Baroness Hollis of Heigham)

    Employers pay statutory maternity pay for up to 26 weeks to qualifying employees.Small employers whose gross national insurance contribution payments in a tax year are £45,000 or less recover 100 per cent. of the statutory maternity pay they pay out plus an additional amount, currently 4.5 per cent, in compensation for the employer's share of national insurance contributions due on SMP payments. Larger employers recover 92 per cent. of the SMP they pay out.Employers reimburse themselves for SMP paid out from the money they are due to pay over to the Inland Revenue in tax, national insurance, student loan deductions and construction industry deductions. Employers can ask the Inland Revenue to pay out in advance if the amount of money the employer needs to pay in SMP exceeds the amount due to be paid over to the Inland Revenue for the same tax month or quarter.

    Eu: Lisbon Strategy

    asked Her Majesty's Government:Whether they intend to provide examples of service sector companies and activities in the United Kingdom which would benefit from the greater deregulation and competitiveness which flow from the European Union's Lisbon process mark two. IHL1516]

    The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Department of Trade and Industry
    (Lord Sainsbury of Turville)

    The spring European Council will decide on policy priorities for the second half of the Lisbon strategy at its mid-term review in March 2005. Creating a properly functioning internal market for services is a key element in delivering the Lisbon strategy. The proposed directive on services in the internal market should result in a significant reduction in barriers to trade in services within the EU. As part of our strategy to develop the evidence base for the benefits of a properly functioning internal market for services, we have commissioned case studies to provide examples of the potential impact of the proposed directive on service sector companies in the UK. This work will be completed by the summer and we will make the results available to all interested parties.

    Paternity Leave

    asked Her Majesty's Government:Whether men who have fathered children by more than one woman in the course of a year are entitled to claim paid or unpaid paternity leave in respect of each child; and, if not, what mechanisms are in place to prevent such claims succeeding. [HL1591]

    To be eligible for statutory paternity leave and statutory paternity pay (SPP), a father must have or expect to have responsibility for the upbringing of the child and be taking leave for the purpose of caring for the child or supporting the child's mother. To receive SPP, the father must supply a written declaration that he is the father of the child, or the mother's husband or partner, that he has or expects to have responsibility for the child's upbringing and that he is taking leave for the purpose of caring for the child or supporting the child's mother. An employer may also require this written declaration to support an application for paternity leave.While there is no specific provision which prevents a man taking paternity leave where more than one child is born during the course of a year, the father would have to satisfy the qualifying conditions and provide a written declaration for each period of leave.

    Mrsa

    asked Her Majesty's Government:When they first became aware of the hazard to health caused by methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitals. [HL1251]

    The health risks posed by methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been well known since the mid-1980s. Under the voluntary system then in existence it is clear that the proportion of MRSA isolates in blood stream infections increased from 4 per cent to 30 per cent from 1993 to 1997. To establish the full scale of the problem this Government introduced the mandatory surveillance of MRSA blood stream infections with effect from 2001. It is by employing these data that we have been able to set a target to halve the rates of MRSA by 2008 and to see that between April and September 2004 MRSA infections dropped by 6.3 per cent compared with the same period in 2003 thanks to hard work by National Health Service staff.

    Nhs: Medical Secretaries

    asked Her Majesty's Government:What advice they give to managers in National Health Service hospitals concerning the appropriate level of secretarial support and assistance provided to consultants to ensure that letters about patients are received by general practitioners within two weeks of a consultation. [HL1530]

    It is for National Health Service employers to determine their local workforce priorities and to recruit staff accordingly. This includes the provision of secretarial support to both medical consultants and general practitioners.The modernisation agency's accelerated development programme for medical secretaries has helped to support this process through the development of new roles and improved career structures. Those trusts which piloted the programme found that it freed up doctors' time for clinical work, improved the recruitment and retention of medical secretaries and reduced waiting times for patients, including the time taken for patients to receive letters. A summary of the programme and advice to NHS employers on implementing role design is available at www.modern.nhs.uk/cwp.

    Salt: Dietary Advice

    asked Her Majesty's Government:What assessment has been made of the associated health risks to patients with kidney disease of the replacement of sodium with potassium chloride and monosodium glutamate in processed food. [HL1581]

    Part one of the National Service Framework for Renal Services published in January 2004 makes it clear that foods containing potassium or sodium need to be restricted by people receiving kidney dialysis. People on dialysis should receive dietetic advice locally on foods they need to avoid or take in moderation including advice on the use of potassium chloride as a salt substitute or the consumption of foods containing monosodium glutamate.

    asked Her Majesty's Government:What guidance is given to newly diagnosed diabetes patients with regard to recommended salt intake levels; and how this guidance is communicated to the health personnel who will be advising patients. [HL1582]

    Newly diagnosed diabetes patients should receive appropriate advice regarding dietary concerns, including salt intake, from their healthcare practitioner. Guidance on recommended salt intake has been provided by the Food Standards Agency and is communicated through the Chief Medical Officer's report, which is widely circulated throughout the health service and particularly to all medical practitioners.

    Nhs: Wheelchairs

    asked Her Majesty's Government:By what means they monitor the effectiveness of their policy towards the supply of electric-powered wheelchairs through the National Health Service. [HL1634]

    There is no central mechanism for monitoring the supply of electric-powered wheelchairs through the National Health Service. It is the responsibility of local primary care trusts to ensure that the supply of electric-powered wheelchairs meets the demand of the needs of service users.

    Common Agricultural Policy

    asked Her Majesty's Government:For each of the most recent five years for which figures are available, what are (a) the total funds received from Brussels in respect of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP); (b) the total paid out to farmers from CAP funds; and (c) the total cost to public funds of administering and monitoring the CAP in the United Kingdom. [HL1513]

    The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
    (Lord Whitty)

    The Rural Payments Agency (RPA) was established on 16 October 2001. The information provided in the table below details for each financial year since the establishment of RPA (a) the total funds received from Brussels in respect of the CAP, (b) the total paid out to farmers from CAP funds and (c) the total cost of administering the CAP.The figures for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland are a matter for the devolved administrations.This information has been extracted from the RPA's annual report and accounts for the relevant years.

    YearFunds received from Brussels £kFunds Paid to farmers £kAdministering and monitoring CAP (England only)£k
    2000–011,937,3262,087,848139,797
    2001–021,664,4411,776,698126,497
    2002–031,908,4101,964,302133,028
    2003–042,173,6462,218,366198,352

    Pigswill

    asked Her Majesty's Government:Whether they will reconsider their refusal to give pigswill feeders compensation, in the light of the Northumberland Trading Standards video of 24 February 2001. [HL1630]

    No. We have not compensated farmers for other changes in feed controls and it would not be appropriate to do so for the ban on swill-feeding.

    Railways: Greater Western Franchise

    asked Her Majesty's Government:Why the Strategic Rail Authority decided not to include in its franchise specification for the proposed integrated Great Western service an hourly service between Worcester, Oxford and London; what were the economic reasons for this decision; and what were the operational risks, given that First Great Western's bid for Thames Trains offered to take this risk; and [HL1604]Whether the proposed integrated Great Western franchise takes into account the possibility that Crossrail may be given exclusive use of the slow lines from Maidenhead to Paddington (as provided for in the Crossrail Bill) so that intercity, local and freight services will need to share the fast lines; and what the additional journey times will be between Reading and Paddington for intercity trains in these circumstances. [HL1605]

    The specification for the Greater Western franchise has not yet been finalised. It is planned to issue the invitation to tender for the franchise in the summer.

    European Court Of Justice: Members

    asked Her Majesty's Government:What are the names, countries of origin, legal backgrounds and judicial experience of each of the members of the European Court of Justice. [ML1524]

    The following information can be found on the European Court of Justice's website at www.curia.eu.int.

    Vassilios Skouris, Greece

    Graduated in law from the Free University, Berlin (1970); awarded doctorate in constitutional and administrative law at Hamburg University (1973); Assistant Professor at Hamburg University (1972–77); Professor of Public Law at Bielefeld University (1978); Professor of Public Law at the University of Thessaloniki (1982); Director of the Centre for International and European Economic Law, Thessaloniki (from 1997); President of the Greek Association for European Law (1992–94); Member of the Academic Council of the Academy of European Law, Trier (from 1995); Member of the Administrative Board of the Greek National Judges' College (1995–96); Judge at the Court of Justice since 8 June 1999; President of the Court of Justice since 7 October 2003.

    Francis Geoffrey Jacobs, United Kingdom

    Barrister; Queen's Counsel Official in the Secretariat of the European Commission of Human Rights; Legal Secretary to Advocate General J.P. Warner; Professor of European Law, University of London; Director, Centre of European Law, King's College London; Author of several works on European law; Advocate General at the Court of Justice since 7 October 1988.

    Claus Christian Gulmann, Denmark

    Official at the Ministry of Justice; Legal Secretary to Judge Max Sorensen; Professor of Public International Law and Dean of the Law School of the University of Copenhagen; in private practice; Chairman and member of arbitral tribunals; Member of Administrative Appeal Tribunal; Advocate General at the Court of Justice from 7 October 1991 to 6 October 1994; Judge at the Court of Justice since 7 October 1994.

    Antonio Mario La Pergola, Italy

    Professor of Constitutional Law and General and Comparative Public Law at the Universities of Padua, Bologna and Rome; Member of the High Council of the Judiciary (1976–78); Member of the Constitutional Court and President of the Constitutional Court (1986–87); Judge at the Court of Justice from 7 October 1994 to 31 December 1994; Advocate General at the Court of Justice from 1 January 1995 to 14 December 1999; Judge at the Court of Justice since 15 December 1999.

    Jean-Pierre Puissochet, France

    State Counsellor (France); Director, subsequently Director-General, of the Legal Service of the Council of the European Communities (1968–73); Director of Legal Affairs of the OECD (1979–85); Jurisconsult, Director of Legal Affairs in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1987–94); Judge at the Court of Justice since 7 October 1994.

    Philippe Léger, France

    A member of the judiciary serving at the Ministry for Justice (1966–70); Deputy Director of Criminal Affairs and Reprieves at the Ministry of Justice (1978–83); Senior Member of the Court of Appeal, Paris (1983–86); Deputy Director of the Private Office of the Minister for Justice, Minister for Justice (1986); President of the Regional Court at Bobigny (1986–93); Head of the Private Office of the Minister for Justice, and Advocate General at the Court of Appeal, Paris (1993–94); Associate Professor at René Descartes University (Paris V) (1988–93); Advocate General at the Court of Justice since 7 October 1994.

    Peter Jann, Austria

    Doctor of Law of the University of Vienna (1957); appointed Judge and assigned to the Federal Ministry of Justice (1961); Judge in press matters at the Straf-Bezirksgericht, Vienna (1963–66); spokesman of the Federal Ministry of Justice (1966–70) and subsequently appointed to the international affairs department of that Ministry; Adviser to the Justice Committee and spokesman at the Parliament (1973–78); appointed as Member of the Constitutional Court (1978); permanent Judge-Rapporteur at that court until the end of 1994; Judge at the Court of Justice since 19 January 1995.

    Dámaso Ruiz-Jarabo Colomer, Spain

    Judge at the Consejo General del Poder Judicial (General Council of the Judiciary); Professor; Head of the Private Office of the President of the Consejo General del Poder Judicial; ad hoc Judge to the European Court of Human Rights; Judge at the Tribunal Supremo (Supreme Court) from 1996; Advocate General at the Court of Justice since 19 January 1995.

    Romain Schintgen, Luxembourg

    Judge at the Court of First Instance from 25 September 1989 to 11 July 1996; Judge at the Court of Justice since 12 July 1996.

    Ninon Colneric, Germany

    Awarded a doctorate in law by the university of Munich; Judge at the Arbeitsgericht Oldenburg; authorised, by the University of Bremen, to teach labour law, sociology of law and social law; Professor ad interim at the faculty of law of the universities of Frankfurt and Bremen; President of the Landesarbeitsgericht Schleswig-Holstein (1989); collaboration, as expert, on the European Expertise Service (EU) project for the reform of the labour law of Kirghizstan (1994–95); Honorary Professor at the University of Bremen in labour law, specifically in European labour law; Judge at the Court of Justice since 15 July 2000.

    Stig von Bahr, Sweden

    Appointed Judge in the Kammarratten (Administrative Court of Appeal), Gothenburg, in 1981 and Justice of the Regeringsratten (Supreme Administrative Court) in 1985; has published a large number of articles, mainly on the subject of tax legislation; Judge at the Court of Justice since 7 October 2000.

    Antonio Tizzano, Italy

    Legal Counsel to Italy's Permanent Representation to the European Communities (1984–92); Member of the Bar at the Court of Cassation and other higher courts; Member of the Italian delegation in international negotiations and at intergovernmental conferences including those on the Single European Act and the Maastricht Treaty; various editorial positions; Member of the Independent Group of Experts appointed to examine the finances of the European Commission (1999); Professor of European Law, Director of the Institute of International and European Law (University of Rome); Advocate General at the Court of Justice since 7 October 2000.

    José Narciso da Cunha Rodrigues, Portugal

    Various offices within the judiciary (1964–77); Government assignments to carry out and co-ordinate studies on reform of the judicial system; Government Agent to the European Commission of Human Rights and the European Court of Human Rights (1980–84); Expert on the Human Rights Steering Committee of the Council of Europe (1980–85); Member of the Review Commission of the Criminal Code and the Code of Criminal Procedure; Attorney-General (1984–2000); Member of the Supervisory Committee of the European Union Anti-Fraud Office (OLAF) (1999–2000); Judge at the Court of Justice since 7 October 2000.

    Christiaan Willem Anton Timmermans, Netherlands

    Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice of the European Communities (1966–69); Doctor of Laws (University of Leiden); Professor of European Law at the University of Groningen (1977–89); Deputy Justice at Arnhem Court of Appeal; various editorial positions; Deputy Director-General at the Legal Service of the European Commission (1989–2000); Professor of European Law at the University of Amsterdam; Judge at the Court of Justice since 7 October 2000.

    Leendert A. Geelhoed, Netherlands

    Research Assistant, University of Utrecht (1970–71); Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice of the European Communities (1971–74); Senior Adviser, Ministry of Justice (1975–82); Advocate General at the Court of Justice since 7 October 2000.

    Christine Stix-Hacki, Austria

    Doctor of Laws (University of Vienna), postgraduate studies in European Law at the College of Europe, Bruges; expert on European Union matters in the office of the Legal Adviser to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1985–88); Legal Service of the European Commission (1989); Head of the "Legal Service-EU" in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1992–2000, Minister Plenipotentiary); Agent of the Republic of Austria at the Court of Justice of the European Communities from 1995; Austrian Consul-General in Zurich (2000); teaching assignments and publications; Advocate-General at the Court of Justice since 7 October 2000.

    Allan Rosas, Finland

    Doctor of Laws (1977) of the University of Turku (Finland); Professor of Law at the University of Turku (1978–81) and at the Åbo Akademi University (Turku/ Abo) (1981–96); Director of the latter's Institute for Human Rights (1985–95); co-ordinated several international and national research projects and programmes, including in the fields of EU law, international law, humanitarian and human rights law, constitutional law and comparative public administration; expert functions in relation to Finnish legal life, including in governmental law commissions and committees of the Finnish Parliament, as well as the UN, UNESCO, OSCE (CSCE) and the Council of Europe; from 1995 Principal Legal Adviser at the Legal Service of the European Commission, in charge of external relations; from March 2001, Deputy Director-General of the European Commission Legal Service; Judge at the Court of Justice since 17 January 2002.

    Rosario Silva de Lapuerta, Spain

    Bachelor of Laws (Universidad Complutense, Madrid); Abogado del Estado in Malaga; Abogado del Estado at the Legal Service of the Ministry of Transport, Tourism and Communication and, subsequently, at the Legal Service of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Head Abogado del Estado of the State Legal Service for Cases before the Court of Justice of the European Communities and Deputy Director-General of the Community and International Legal Assistance Department (Ministry of Justice); Member of the Commission think tank on the future of the Community judicial system; Head of the Spanish delegation in the "Friends of the Presidency" Group with regard to the reform of the Community judicial system in the Treaty of Nice and of the Council ad hoc working party on the Court of Justice; Professor of Community law at the Diplomatic School, Madrid; Co-director of the journal Noticias de la Union Europea; Judge at the Court of Justice since 7 October 2003.

    Koen Lenaerts, Belgium

    PhD in Law (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven); Master of Laws, Master in Public Administration (Harvard University); Lecturer (1979–83), subsequently Professor of European Law, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (since 1983); Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice (1984–85); Professor at the College of Europe, Bruges (1984–89); Member of the Brussels Bar (1986–89); Visiting Professor at the Harvard Law School (1989); Judge at the Court of First Instance of the European Communities from 25 September 1989 to 6 October 2003; Judge at the Court of Justice since 7 October 2003.

    Juliane Kokott, Germany

    Law studies (Universities of Bonn and Geneva); LLM (American University/Washington DC): Doctor of Laws (Heidelberg University, 1985; Harvard University, 1990); visiting professor at the University of California, Berkeley (1991); Professor of German and foreign public law, international law and European law at the Universities of Augsburg,(1992), Heidelberg (1993) and Dnsseldorf (1994); deputy judge for the Federal Government at the Court of Conciliation and Arbitration of the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE); Professor of International Law, International Business Law and European Law at the University of St Gallen (1999); Director of the Institute for European and International Business Law at the University of St Gallen (2000); Deputy Director of the Master of Business Law programme at the University of St Gallen (2001); Advocate General at the Court of Justice since 7 October 2003.

    Luls Miguel Poiares Pessoa Maduro, Portugal

    Degree in law (University of Lisbon, 1990); assistant lecturer (European University Institute, 1991); Doctor of Laws (European University Institute, Florence, 1996); visiting professor (College of Europe, Natolin; Ortega y Gasset Institute, Madrid; Catholic University, Portugal; Institute of European Studies, Macao); Professor (Universidade Nova, Lisbon, 1997); Fulbright Visiting Research Fellow (Harvard University, 1998); co-director of the Academy of International Trade Law; co-editor (Hart Series on European Law and Integration, European Law Journal) and member of the editorial board of several law journals; Advocate General at the Court of Justice since 7 October 2003.

    Konrad Hermann Theodor Schiemann, United Kingdom

    Law degrees at Cambridge University; Barrister 1964–80; Queen's Counsel 1980–86. Justice of the High Court of England and Wales 1986–95; Lord Justice of Appeal 1995–2003; Bencher from 1985 and Treasurer in 2003 of the Honourable Society of the Inner Temple; Judge at the Court of Justice since 8 January 2004.

    Jerzy Makarczyk, Poland

    Doctor of Laws (1966); Professor of Public International Law (1974); author of several works on public international law, European Community law and human rights law; member of several learned societies in the field of international law, European law and human rights law; Judge at the European Court of Human Rights (1992–2002); President of the Institut de droit international (2003); Judge at the Court of Justice since 11 May 2004.

    Pranas Kuris, Lithuania

    Graduated in law from the University of Vilnius (1961); Doctorate in legal science, University of Moscow (1965); Doctor in legal science (Dr. hab), University of Moscow (1973); Research Assistant at the Institut des hautes études internationales (Director: Professor C. Rousseau), University of Paris (1967–68); Doctor honoris causa of the Law University of Lithuania (2001); Lecturer, Assistant Professor, Professor of Public International Law, Dean of the Faculty of Law; Judge at the (old) European Court of Human Rights (June 1994 to November 1998); Judge at the Supreme Court of Lithuania and subsequently President of the Supreme Court (December 1994 to October 1998); Judge at the European Court of Human Rights (from November 1998); Judge at the Court of Justice since 11 May 2004.

    Endre Juhasz, Hungary

    Graduated in law from the University of Szeged, Hungary (1967); Hungarian Bar Entrance Examinations (1970); post-graduate studies in comparative law, University of Strasbourg, France (1969, 1970, 1971, 1972); Judge at the Court of Justice since 11 May 2004.

    George Arestis, Cyprus

    Graduated in law from the University of Athens (1968); M.A. in comparative politics and government, University of Kent at Canterbury (1970); practice as a lawyer in Cyprus (1972–82); appointed District Court Judge (1982); Promoted to the post of President of the District Court (1995); Administrative President of the District Court of Nicosia (1997–2003); Judge at the Supreme Court of Cyprus (2003); Judge at the Court of Justice since 11 May 2004.

    Anthony Borg Barthet, Malta

    Doctorate in Law at the Royal University of Malta in 1973; entered the Maltese Civil Service as Notary to the Government in 1975; Counsel for the Republic in 1978, Senior Counsel for the Republic in 1979, Assistant Attorney-General in 1988 and appointed Attorney-General by the President of Malta in 1989; part-time lecturer in civil law at the University of Malta (1985–89); Member of the Commission for the Administration of Justice (1994–2004); Member of the Board of Governors of the Malta Arbitration Centre (1998–2004); Judge at the Court of Justice since 11 May 2004.

    Marko Ilěič, Slovenia

    Doctor of Law (University of Ljubljana); specialist in comparative law (Universities of Strasbourg and Coimbra); Member of the Bar; Judge at the Labour Court, Ljubljana (1975–86); Arbitrator at the Arbitration Court of the Triglav Insurance Company (1990–98); Chairman of the Stock Exchange Appellate Chamber (from 1995); Arbitrator at the Stock Exchange Arbitration Court (from 1998); Arbitrator at the Chamber of Commerce of Yugoslavia (until 1991) and Slovenia (from 1991); Arbitrator at the International Chamber of Commerce in Paris; Judge at the Board of Appeals of UEFA (from 1988) and FIFA (from 2000); President of the Union of Slovenian Lawyers' Associations; Member of the International Law Association, of the International Maritime Committee and of several other international legal societies; Professor of Civil Law, Commercial Law and Private International Law; Dean of the Faculty of Law at the University of Ljubljana; author of numerous legal publications; Judge at the Court of Justice since 11 May 2004.

    Jirt Malenovkỳ Czech Republic

    Doctor of Law from the Charles University in Prague (1975); Senior faculty member (1974–90), Vice-Dean (1989–91) and Head of the Department of International and European Law (1990–92) at Masaryk University in Brno; Judge at the Constitutional Court of Czechoslovakia (1992); President of the Czech and Slovak branch of the International Law Association (1999–2001); Judge at the Constitutional Court (2000–04); Member of the Legislative Council (1998–2000); Member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague (2000); Professor of Public International Law at Masaryk University, Brno (2001): Judge at the Court of Justice since 11 May 2004.

    Jan Klučcka, Slovakia

    Doctor of Law from the University of Bratislava (1974); Professor of International Law at Kosice University (since 1975); Judge at the Constitutional Court (1993); Member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague (1994); Member of the Venice Commission (1994); Chairman of the Slovakian Association of International Law (2002); Judge at the Court of Justice since 11 May 2004.

    Una Lõhmus, Estonia

    Doctor of Law in 1986; Member of the Bar (1977–98); Visiting Professor of Criminal Law at Tartu University; Judge at the European Court of Human Rights (1994–98); Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Estonia (1998–2004); Member of the Committee for Legal Expertise of the Constitution; consultant to the working group drafting the Criminal Code; member of the working group for the drafting of the Criminal Procedure Code; author of several works on human rights and constitutional law; Judge at the Court of Justice since 11 May 2004.

    Egils Levits, Latvia

    Graduated in law and in political science from the University of Hamburg; research assistant at the Faculty of Law, University of Kiel; Adviser to Latvian Parliament on questions of international law, constitutional law and legislative reform; Conciliator at the Court of Conciliation and Arbitration within OSCE (from 1997); Member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration (from 2001); elected as Judge to the European Court of Human Rights in 1995, re-elected in 1998 and 2001; numerous publications in the spheres of constitutional and administrative law, law reform and European Community law; Judge at the Court of Justice since 11 May 2004.

    Aindrias O'Caoimh, Ireland

    Bachelor in Civil Law (National University of Ireland, University College Dublin, 1971); Barrister (King's Inns, 1972); Diploma in European Law (University College Dublin, 1977); Barrister (Bar of Ireland, 1972–99); Lecturer in European Law (King's Inns, Dublin); Senior Counsel (1994–99); Representative of the Government of Ireland on many occasions before the Court of Justice of the European Communities; Judge at the High Court (from 1999); Bencher of the Honourable Society of King's Inns (since 1999); Vice-President of the Irish Society of European Law; member of the International Law Association (Irish Branch); member of the Court of Justice 1974–85; Judge at the Court of Justice since 13 October 2004.

    Roger Grass, France

    Graduate of the Institut d'études politiques, Paris, and awarded higher degree in public law; Deputy Procureur de la République attached to the Tribunal de grande instance, Versailles; Principal Administrator at the Court of Justice; Secretary-Général in the office of the Procureur General attached to the Court of Appeal, Paris; Legal Secretary to the President of the Court of Justice; Registrar at the Court of Justice since 10 February 1994.