My Lords, the Government are aware of the growing issue of diabetes in minority-ethnic groups. The NHS is taking a range of actions to ensure effective treatment. The recent publication of clinical guidance on type 2 diabetes by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence identifies those at high risk and how best to manage the risk. It specifically mentions ethnic minorities and identifies pathways to ensure effective management.
My Lords, given that the worrying rise of type 2 diabetes among our ethnic communities is absorbing an ever increasing share of 10% of the NHS budget, which itself is shrinking for diabetes care, will the noble Earl institute an increase in the number of diabetes nurses, who are at the heart of communities, support the Diabetes UK campaign for ethnic-community champions and, finally, heed the advice coming from the dedicated research team at the University of Warwick that matching health professionals tutored in the cultural knowledge and understanding of our ethnic communities can give enormous benefits?
My Lords, I agree wholeheartedly with the thrust of the noble Lord’s question. As he will know, Diabetes UK has pioneered a programme of diabetes community champions from ethnic-minority communities to raise awareness of the condition in their communities. The Department of Health has awarded Diabetes UK a grant through the volunteering fund national awards for the programme to be rolled out across 12 English cities over the next two years. I gather that 111 community champions have already been recruited in London. This is exactly the sort of initiative that we need if we are to reach those who are most at risk of developing or, indeed, being diagnosed with diabetes.
My Lords, for many years, the Network of Sikh Organisations has been active in working in clinics in gurdwaras, or Sikh temples, to promote an understanding of health issues and to do checks for blood sugar and raised cholesterol. These tests and other health advice have been very effective. Will the Minister consider ways of giving impetus to such initiatives and perhaps extending them to other faith groups and centres in order to combat the evil of bad genes and the subcontinental taste for sweetness and sugars?
My Lords, I am aware of several local initiatives that are doing great work in accessing those in both black and minority-ethnic communities along the lines mentioned by the noble Lord. We have made important progress in strengthening our approach to promoting equality in health and social care and in tackling these inequalities that exist. That is especially important in relation to the Asian community. I am thinking in particular—the noble Lord mentioned the need to roll out initiatives—of the NHS Heath Check programme supported by the guidance on prevention issued by NICE and the Change4Life Programme, which now has a bespoke element to it targeted specifically at ethnic-minority communities.
My Lords, are separate statistics kept about ethnic groups? If not, would it not be an advantage to do so in terms of research, particularly as type 2 diabetes is very much dependent on diet and might be quite different in different sections of the community? What is the prevalence of diabetes in the ethnic community as opposed to other communities and what is the prevalence of type 1 diabetes as opposed to type 2 diabetes?
My advice is that type 1 diabetes is not a particular issue in ethnic-minority communities. We are talking about type 2 diabetes, which is five times more common in black and ethnic-minority groups, six times more common in south Asian ethnic groups, and three times more common in areas of social deprivation than in the rest of the population. There are particular clinical risks associated with those from ethnic minority communities who have diabetes. Complications include particularly heart disease—south Asian people are 50% more likely than the general population to die prematurely from coronary heart disease—and the prevalence of stroke is also much higher in African, Caribbean and south Asian men.
Exercise is recommended under the Change4Life programme and under the advice given by NICE. However, the noble Baroness is absolutely right to mention a possible genetic cause. The cause of diabetes is not fully understood and is multi-factorial. Healthy eating, weight control and exercise can help reduce the risks, but that is not the full picture. It is suspected that there is a genetic component in the case of black and ethnic-minority communities.
My Lords, I have some of the statistics that have already been mentioned. We now know that manifestations of diabetes are three times higher among the Afro-Caribbean people who came to Britain to assist after the war than among the majority population. We also know that deaths are three times higher and 40% are at a higher risk of morbidity, kidney failure and blindness. As a result, they really do put a higher cost on the NHS. Some who have returned home have to come back here for treatment because this is where they paid their way. I would like to know whether Her Majesty’s Government have really taken on board the NICE recommendations that health programmes should be culturally appropriate and that cooking guidance should be given and tailored to the needs of people and to what they eat at home. We believe that educators are necessary to inform sufferers of their needs, so that they can make a choice, not only about what they eat but also about how they prepare it. I ran classes for a group of people and I can assure your Lordships that there has been a change in the way they respond. If the Government have not taken up that particular part of the NICE recommendations, why not?
My Lords, the advice given by NICE makes 20 specific recommendations, many of which are highly relevant to the population group mentioned by the noble Baroness. She is absolutely right that there is a need to educate those in black communities about a healthy diet. There is a lot of work going on in that area, which is too detailed and complicated for me to mention at the moment, and in the area of self-education to enable patients to understand their own condition and to manage it better.